Research and Publications

Welcome to the Lab



3D media, VR Models and more 

Open Science Framework (OSF):

Downloadable CT data & 3D models. 

circle o gators

CrocNet: Find over 25 CT datasets of Alligator skulls and other goodies. More still to come. 

BirdNet: Find our growing number of datasets of bird heads and bodies. 

Publications: Google Citations

Journal Articles

Lessner EJ, Holliday CM. 2020. A 3D ontogenetic atlas of Alligator mississippiensis cranial nerves and their significance for comparative neurology of reptiles. Anatomical Record.

Lessner EJ, Gant CA, Hieronymus TL, Vickaryous MK, Holliday CM. 2019. Anatomy and Ontogeny of the Mandibular Symphysis in Alligator mississippiensis. Anatomical Record. 302(10):1696-1708

Moore BC, Holliday CM, McMurry ST, Platt SG, Rainwater TR. 2019. Correlation between increased postpubertal phallic growth and the initiation of cranial sexual dimorphisms in male Morelet’s crocodile. Journal of Experimental Zoology A

Cost IN, Middleton KM, Sellers KC, Echols MS, Witmer LM, Davis JL, Holliday CM. 2019. Palatal biomechanics and its significance for cranial kinesis in Tyrannosaurus rex. The Anatomical Record.

Wilken AT, Middleton KM, Sellers KC, Cost IN, Holliday CM. 2019. The roles of joint tissues and jaw muscle sin palatal biomechanics of the savannah monitor (Varanus exanthematicus) and their significance for cranial kinesis. Journal of Experimental Biology 222. doi: 10.1242/jeb.201459

Holliday CM, Porter WR, Vliet KA, Witmer LM. 2019. The frontoparietal fossa and dorsotemporal fenestra of archosaurs and their significance for interpretations of vascular and muscular anatomy in dinosaurs. The Anatomical Record.

Sellers KC, Schmiegelow AB, Holliday CM. 2019. The significance of enamel thickness in the teeth of Alligator mississippiensis and its diversity among crocodyliforms. Journal of Zoology

Sullivan SP, McGechie FR, Middleton KM, Holliday CM. 3D muscle architecture of the pectoral muscles of European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Integrative Organismal Biology: 1-18

Tsai HP, Middleton KM, Hutchinson JR, Holliday CM. 2018. Hip joint articular tissues of non-dinosaurian dinosauromorpha and early Dinosauria: evolutionary and biomechanical impolications for Saurischia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 38(1), e1427593.

Bailleul AM, Holliday CM. 2017. Joint histology in Alligator mississippiensis challenges the identification of synovial joints in fossil archosaurs and inferences of cranial kinesis. Proceedings B of the Royal Society 284 (1851):20170038.

Bailleul AM, Witmer LM, Holliday CM. 2017. Cranial joint histology in the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchous): new insights on avian cranial kinesis. Journal of Anatomy 230(3):444-460.

Sellers, KC, Middleton KM, Davis JL, Holliday CM. 2017. Ontogeny of bite force in a validated biomechanical model of the American alligator.  Journal of Experimental Biology 220: 2036-2046.

Gignac PM et al., Holliday CM et al., 2016. Diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography (diceCT): an emerging tool for rapid, high-resolution, 3D imaging of metazoan soft tissues. Journal of Anatomy 228 (6): 889-909.

Henry P Tsai, HollidayCM.  2015. Articular soft tissue anatomy of the archosaur hip joint: Structural homology and functional implications. Journal of Morphology 276: 601-630. PDF

Caitlin M Jandegian, Sharon L Deem, Ramji K Bhandari, C. M. Holliday, Diane Nicks, Cheryl S Rosenfeld, Kyle W Selcer, Donald E Tillitt, Frederick S vom Saal, Vanessa Vélez-Rivera, Ying Yang, Dawn K Holliday. 2015. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters sexual differentiation in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta). General and Comparative Endocrinology 216: 77-85. PDF

Holliday CM, Tsai H.P., George, I.D., Skiljan, R.J., Pathan, S. 2013. 3D integrative atlas of the jaw muscles of Alligator mississippiensis. PLoS ONE.

Holliday, C. M. and Nesbitt, S.J. 2013. Morphology and diversity of the mandibular symphysis of archosauriforms. Special Papers of the Geological Society, London. PDF

George, I. D. and C. M. Holliday. 2013. Scaling of the trigeminal nerve in Alligator mississippiensis and its significance for the evolution of crocodilian facial sensation. The Anatomical Record. PDF 

Young, M., Witmer, L.M., Holliday, C. M., Rayfield, E. J., Barrett, P. 2012. Cranial biomechanics of Diplodocus (Dinosauria, Sauropoda): testing hypotheses of form and function in an extinct megaherbivore. Naturwissenschaften. PDF

Holliday, C. M. and N.M.Gardner. 2012. A new eusuchian crocodilian with novel cranial integument and the origin of Crocodylia. PLoS One 7(1):e30471. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0030471

Holliday, D. K. and C. M. Holliday. 2012. The effects of the organopollutant PCB-126 on bone density in juvenile Diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin). Aquatic Toxicology 109: 228-233. PDF

Tsai, H.P. and C. M. Holliday. 2011. Ontogeny of the cartilago transiliens of Alligator mississippiensis and its significance for sauropsid jaw muscle homology and sesamoid biology. PLoS One 6(9): e24935.

Porro, L. B., C. M. Holliday, F. Anapol, L. C. Ontiveros, L. T. Ontiveros, C. F. Ross. 2011. Free body analysis, beam mechanics, and finite element modeling of the mandible of Alligator mississippiensis. Journal of Morphology 272: 910-937. PDF

Payne, S.L., C. M. Holliday, M.K.Vickaryous. 2011. An osteological and histological investigation of cranial joints in geckos. The Anatomical Record 294: 399-405. PDF

Reed, D. A., L. Porro, J. Iriarte-Diaz, J. Lemberg, C. M. Holliday, F. Anapol, C. F. Ross. 2011. The impact of bone and suture material properties on mandibular function in Alligator mississippiensis: testing theoretical phenotypes with finite element analysis. Journal of Anatomy: 318(1):59-74. PDF

Gardner, N.M., C. M. Holliday, F. R. O’Keefe. 2010. The braincase of Youngina capensis (Reptilia, Diapsida): new insights from high-resolution CT Scanning of the holotype. Paleontologia Electronica 13(3): 16pp.  PDF

Holliday, C. M., R. C. Ridgely, J. C. Sedlmayr, L. M. Witmer. 2010. Cartilaginous epiphyses in extant archosaurs and their implications for reconstructing limb function in dinosaurs. PLoS One 5(9):15p PDF

Holliday, C. M., N.M.Gardner, M.Douthitt, S.M.Paesani, J.L.Ratliff. 2010. Microanatomy of the mandibular symphysis in lizards: patterns in fiber orientation and Meckel’s cartilage and their significance in cranial evolution. The Anatomical Record. 293:1350-1359. PDF 

Holliday, C. M. 2009. New insights into dinosaur jaw muscle anatomy. The Anatomical Record. Special Issue: Unearthing the anatomy of dinosaurs. 292:1246-1265. PDF

Holliday, C. M. and L.M.Witmer. 2009. The epipterygoid of crocodyliforms and its significance in the evolution of the orbitotemporal region of eusuchians. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29(3): 713-733 PDF 

Holliday, C. M. and L.M.Witmer. 2008. Cranial kinesis in dinosaurs: intracranial joints, protractor muscles, and their significance for cranial evolution and function in diapsids. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28(4):1073-1088. PDF 

Cooper, L.N., N.Sedano, S.Johansson, B. May, J.D.Brown, C. M. Holliday, B. W. Kot, F. E. Fish. 2008. Hydrodynamic performance of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) flipper. Journal of Experimental Biology 211:1859-1867. PDF

Rybczynski, N., A.Tirabasso, P.Bloskie, R.Cutherbertson,  C. M. Holliday. 2008. A three-dimensional animation model of Edmontosaurus (Hadrosauridae) for testing chewing hypotheses. Paleontologia Electronica 11(2):14p. PDF

Holliday, C. M. and L.M.Witmer. 2007. Archosaur adductor chamber evolution: integration of musculoskeletal and topological criteria in jaw muscle homology. Journal of Morphology 268:457-484. PDF 

1. Holliday, C. M., R. C. Ridgely, A. Balanoff, and L. M. Witmer. 2006. Report on a novel vascular device of the Caribbean flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) using CT scanning and digital visualization techniques. The Anatomical Record. 288A (10):1031-1041. PDF 

Book Chapters

1. Dilkes, D. W., J. R. Hutchinson, C. M. Holliday, L. M. Witmer. 2012. Reconstructing the Musculature of Dinosaurs. In: Brett-Surman M. K., Holtz, T. R., Farlow, J. O. The Complete Dinosaur 2nd Ed. Indiana University Press. Pp 151-190.